A Brahmin (also Brahman; Brāhmaṇa) (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण)[Note 1] is a member of the priestly class in the Indian subcontinent. Brahmins belong to the Upper Caste Society. According to ancient Hindu texts including the Manusmṛti, there are four "varnas", or spiritual classes, into which all persons can be divided, based on inherent temperament, and level of spiritual development achieved through manyincarnations – the Brahmins (teachers, scholars and priests), the Kshatriyas (kings and warriors), the Vaishyas andShudras (agriculturists, artisans and merchants), (service providers and laborers). Later, through corruption and misinterpretation of the sacred texts, this originally spiritual classification became a hereditary social system in India. Brahmins were charged with performing religious duties as priests and preaching Dharma (as "one who prays; a devout or religious man; a Brāhman who is well versed in Vedic texts; one versed in sacred knowledge"). The Brahmins held authority over interpretation of Vedic and Puranic spiritual texts like the Vedas, Upanishads and Bhagavad-Gita, and were the teachers of the Vedic period.
Brahmins, as they have been seen in the caste system as it developed through the course of history, have been subjected to criticism for their important role in discrimination towards, and division and oppression of other castes and communities. They had deprived the lower castes of education, and what has been seen as their supremacist and conservative attitude, is said to have had a strong negative impact on Indian social structure. They had also added practices to Indian society that unduly benefited them in the name of their purported, divinely endowed, privilege and authority.
Due to the diversity in regional religious traditions and the Vedic schools which they belong to, Brahmins, in modern usage of the term, are further divided into various sub-castes. Not all Brahmins are priests; only a subset of brahmins are involved in the priestly duties, with vedic learning, ascetic and humble living. Brahmins have practised other professions from the late Vedic ages, becoming doctors, smiths, lawyers, engineers, warriors, writers, poets, landlords, ministers, etc. Many Brahmins have emigrated to other parts of the world in sizable numbers, particularly to the USA, UK, Canada and Australia.
The history of the Brahmin community in modern India claims its origin to be with the Vedic religion of early Hinduism, now often referred to by Hindus as Sanatana Dharma. The Vedas are said to be the primary source of knowledge for brahmin practices. Most sampradayas (religious practices) of modern Brahmins claim to take inspiration from the Vedas. According to orthodox Hindu tradition, the Vedas are apauruṣeya and anādi (beginning-less), and are revealed truths of eternal validity.
The Vedas are considered Śruti ("that which is heard") and are the paramount source on which modern Brahmin tradition claims to be based. Shruti includes not only the four Vedas (theRigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda), but also their respectiveBrahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads.
In 1931 (the last Indian census to record caste), Brahmins accounted for 4.32% of the total population. Even in Uttar Pradesh, where they were most numerous, Brahmins constituted just 12% of the recorded population. In Andhra Pradesh, they formed less than 2%; in Tamil Naduthey formed less than 3%. In Kerala, Nambudiri Brahmins make up 0.7% of the population. In west bengal too the figures stand the same. According to the 2001 census, Brahmins constitute less than 4.1% of the Indian population.
R1a is typical in populations of Eastern Europe,Indian Subcontinent and parts of Central Asia. It has a significant presence in Northern Europe,Central Europe, Iran, Altaians and Xinjiang(China) as well as in Siberia. R1a can be found in low frequencies in the Middle East, mostly inIndo-European speakers or their descendants.
The highest levels of R1a (>50%) are found across the Eurasian Steppe: West BengalBrahmins (72%), and Uttar Pradesh Brahmins, (67%) , the Ishkashimi (68%), the Tajikpopulation of Khojant (64%), Kyrgyz (63.5%), Sorbs (63.39%), Poles (56.4%), Ukrainians (50%) and Russians (50%) and in the Central India among the saharia tribe of Madhya PradeshR1a*(22.8%) and R1a1(28.07%).
R1a has been variously associated with:
The Modern studies for R1a1 (M17) suggest that it could have originated in South Asia. It could have found its way initially from Western India (Gujarat) through Pakistan and Kashmir, then viaCentral Asia and Russia, before finally coming to Europe"..."as part of an archaeologically dated Paleolithic movement from east to west 30,000 years ago.
The Brahmin castes may be broadly divided into two regional groups: Pancha-Gauda Brahminsfrom Northern India and considered to be North of Vindhya mountains and Pancha-Dravida Brahmins from South of Vindhya mountains as per the shloka. However, this sloka is from Rajatarangini of Kalhana, which was composed only in the 11th century CE.
कर्णाटकाश्च तैलंगा द्राविडा महाराष्ट्रकाः,
गुर्जराश्चेति पञ्चैव द्राविडा विन्ध्यदक्षिणे ||
सारस्वताः कान्यकुब्जा गौडा उत्कलमैथिलाः,
पन्चगौडा इति ख्याता विन्ध्स्योत्तरवासिनः ||
Translation: Karnataka (Kannada), Telugu (Andhra), Dravida (Tamil and Kerala), Maharashtra and Gujarat are Five Southern (Panch Dravida). Saraswata, Kanyakubja, Gauda, Utkala (Orissa), Maithili are Five Northern (Pancha Gauda). This classification occurs in Rajatarangini of Kalhanaand earlier in some inscriptions 
Panch Gaur (the five classes of Northern India): (1) Saraswat, (2) Kanyakubja Brahmins, (3)Maithil Brahmins, (4) Gauda brahmins (including Sanadhyas), and (5) Utkala Brahmins. In addition, for the purpose of giving an account of Northern Brahmins each of the provinces must be considered separately, such as Kashmir, Nepal, Uttarakhand, Himachal, Kurukshetra,Rajputana, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Ayodhya (Oudh), Gandhara, Punjab,Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, North Western Provinces and Pakistan, Sindh, Central India, and Tirhut, among others. They originate from south of the (now-extinct) Sarasvati River.
In Assam, out of many sects of Hindu people which include Brahmins (Assamese: অসমীয়া ব্ৰাহ্মণ, Hindi: आसामी ब्राह्मण or Hindi: असमिया ब्राह्मण or Hindi: असमी ब्राह्मण), Kalitas, and Ahoms among others, the Brahmin community is comparatively small. Assamese Brahmins are found mostly inLower Assam, Upper-Assam and throughout the entire Brahmaputra Valley. Assamese Brahminsare believed to have their origins in Kannauj, Uttar Pradesh, who generally migrated duringKamarupa Kingdom period to Lower Assam and then to rest of Brahmaputra Valley and some migrated also from far off Rajasthan to that of Karnataka. Brahmins in Assam are same as per their faith and customs with that of any other Brahmin community across India. Each Brahmin family within the community carries a specific Gotra (Proper Brahmin Identity Surname) which is specific for each family, thereby indicating their origin. Sarma, Barooah, Goswami, Sharma,Chakravarty, are a few common Assamese Brahmin surnames, among many others. (See also:Assamese Brahmins)
In Bihar, majority of Brahmins are Kanyakubja Brahmins,bhatt brahmins and Maithil Brahminswith a significant population of Sakaldiwiya or Shakdwipi Brahmins. The distinctive 'caste' identity of Bhumihar Brahman emerged largely through military service, and then confirmed by the forms of continuous 'social spending' which defined a man and his kin as superior and lordly. In 19th century, many of the Bhumihar Brahmins were zamindars. Of the 67,000 Hindus in the Bengal Army in 1842, 28,000 were identified as Rajputs and 25,000 as Brahmins, a category that included Bhumihar Brahmins. The Brahmin presence in the Bengal Army was reduced in the late nineteenth century because of their perceived primary role as mutineers in the Mutiny of 1857, led by Mangal Pandey.
Brahmin communities, sub-castes and families in Gujarat include the following:
Aboti Brahmin • Anavil Brahmin • Audichya Brahmins • Baj Khedawal Brahmins (Khedaval Brahmin) • Bardai Brahmins . Trivedi Mewada Brahmin• Bhattmewada Brahmins • Chauriyasi Mewada Brahmin • Tapodhan Brahmin • Modh Brahmins • Nandwana Brahmins • Shrigaud Brahmins • Nagar Brahmins • Sachora Brahmins • Sidhra-Rudhra Brahmins • Shrimali Brahmins • Swarnkar Brahmins • Rajya purohit Brahmins • Sompura Brahmins • Kapil Brahmin (known to be descended from Kapil muni) originally residents of Kavi village in Jambusar Taluka, now most of them residing in Bharuch, Vadodara and Surat • Kanojiya • Kandoliya Brahmin • Unevad Brahmin – and many others including: Chhariya, Nathadiya, Badhiya, Bhaglani, Lakhlani, Bhuvadiya, Kailaya, Sardavarti, Ramani, Pingal, Kutch Bhatt Kanojiya Bramin Mandal, Kutch, Morbi, Jamnagar, Rajkot, Saradiya, Nagalpar and Medhpar-Junagadh • Upreti.
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Kaushik Kaushik/Koushik(कौशिक) is a ancient Indian'Gotra'. Origin of Kaushik can be referenced to an ancient Hindu text. There was a Rishi (saint) by the name of "Vishvamitra" literally meaning 'friend of the universe','vishwa' as in universe and mitra as in 'friend', he was also called as Rishi "Kaushik"
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In western Madhyapradesh, especially in the "malwa" region, there are many "shrigoud" brahmins.
"Shrigoud Brahmins" are the root of all the other classified Brahmins. "Gaud" means Root. The word "Brahman" emerges out from Lord Brahma. Some clan of highly esteemed Upreti Brahmins are also found in this state. They were originally migrated from Kumaon regions.
Brahmins are the second largest caste group in Nepal, Chhetri(Kshatriya) being the first. Brahmins were inhabitants of Nepal from the prehistoric time. There are references about brahmins of Nepal in bansawali and purans. Brahmins and kshetriyas are portrayed as outsiders, who migrated from India by the armed political groups mainly maoists for recruiting the members of other ethnic groups in Nepal.
The Sanskrit text Brāhmaṇotpatti-Mārtaṇḍa by Pt. Harikrishna Śāstri mentions according to which a king named Utkala invited brahmins from Gangetic Valley for performing a yajna in Jagannath-Puri; when the yajna ended the invited brahmins laid the foundation of the Lord Jagannath there and settled there for serving the Lord
The Utkala Brahmins are of two classes 1) Shrotriya (vaidika) and 2) Sevaka (doing accessory rites) Brahmin. Again, there are many sub-classes in these two classes.
1) Shrotriyas are mainly adherents of Vedas, especially:
2) Sevakas generally belong to brahmins doing accessory rites like cooking in temples, helping in procession of temple deity. They generally follow any of the Veda of their choice for family rites but they cannot perform Vedic sacrifices.
Utkala or Oriya Brahmin surnames include: Acharya, Mishra, BhattaMishra, Tripathi, Dash, DashSharma, Dwivedi, Udgata or udgātṛ, Hota or Hotṛ, Dikshit, Satapathy, Chaturvedi, Debata (Devta), Kar, Bishi, Suara, Mahasuara, Garabadu, Sharma, Nath, Choudhury, Sahu, Dyansamantray, Panigrahi, Guru, Rajguru, Rayguru, Mahapatra, Pani, Mohapatra (some of them), Rath, RathSharma, Sharma, Patri, Sadangi, Pani, Thakur (found mostly in Kalahandi and Sambalpur), Pati, Bahinipati, Vedi, Trivedi, Sarangi, Pattajoshi, Joshi, Gantayat, Behera (found mostly in Kalahandi and Sambalpur), Sar (some of them), Sabat, Swain (some of them), Shukla,Panda or Pandit, BadaPanda, PujaPanda, Sabata, Nanda, Purohit, Pujari, Padhiary, Pathi, Nepak, Devasharma, Praharaj, Padhi, Otta, Khadenga, and Pradhan (some of them)senapati.
The Brahmins of the Punjab region are chiefly Saraswat Brahmins. They have a special association with the Punjab since they take their name from the river, Saraswati.
In Punjab, the Saraswat Brahmins are further divided into following main sections.
1. Panja jati (five families), the highest subgroup of Punjabi Brahmins whose surnames are Jaitly, Trikha, Kumoria, Jinghan, and Mohla.
2. Barahis (twelvers), who marry among twelve castes only. This group belongs to the Shakadweepi Brahmins/ Maga Brahmins.
3. Bawanjais (fifty-twoers), who marry among fifty-two houses only.
4. Athwans (seven families/seveners) and include Joshis, Kurals, Bhanots, Sands, Pathaks, Bharadwajs, Shouries. These eight families marry among each other.
5. Mohyals- the warrior brahmin race. They are a distinct category of Brahmins who combine military knowledge with learning. They strictly refrain from performing priestly duties, often to the point of excommunicating anyone who violates that rule. They are a group comprising of seven clans (Balis, Bhimwals, Chhibber, Datts, Mohan, Laus and Vaids). They generally own lands and are mostly involved in military and administrative services. They eat meat and are not very strict in the observance of religious taboos. They also marry within the seven clans.
6. Bhaskars Gotra Vashisht originating from a place "Badu ki Gusaiyaan" now in Pakistan.
There are lots of type of Brahmin in Rajasthan. Bhardwaj, Dadhich, Gaur, Upreti, Gujar gaur, Kaushik, Pushkarna, Vashishta, Jangid Brahmins. Most Brahmins in India are strict vegetarians. One group is Brahmin Swarnkar, which developed from Shrimal Nagar's brahmins (now known as Bhinmal). They are called "Brahmin Swarnkars" because a group of Brahmins adopted a swarnkar business for their enhancement of life style, and so these brahmins are called as Brahmin Swarnkars. Being a brahmins, brahmin swarnkar, have main 9 Rishi gotras.
1. Atri, 2. Kashyap, 3. Kaushik, 4. Gautam, 5. Parashar, 6. Bhardwaj, 7. Vatsat, 8. Vashisht, 9. Haritas. Upreti(देवनागरी:उप्रेती), is a community of highly regarded Brahmins living in the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand state of India. A few are also found in Rajasthan . According to their traditions, they are the descendents of the sage Bharadwaj.
There are subgotras in each Rishi Gotras, and total gotras are about 84 which were developed by Shri Dharmsi ji at Keradu during the 7th century.
There are many types of brahmins in Jammu and Kashmir. The Brahmans of Jammu Province are known as Dogra Brahmans (or Dogra Pandit), whereas Brahmans of Kashmir are known as Kashmiri Brahmans (or Kashmiri Pandits). There are also Brahmans known as Kishtwari Brahmans, Bhaderwahi Brahmans, Poonchi Brahmans, Mirpuri Brahmans, and Punjabi Brahmans in small numbers in Jammu and Kashmir.
The Brahmans of Jammu are known as Dogra Brahmins. Some popular Dogra Brahmans are Prem Chand Dogra (Mr Universe 1987 - Bodybuilding), Pandit Prem Nath Dogra, Pandit Shiv Kumar Sharma, noted santoor player; Padma Sachdev (writer, lyricist) and Pandit Prem Nath Shastri (writer).
In Uttar Pradesh from west to east: Sanadhya, Gauda and Tyagi (Western Uttar Pradesh), Kanyakubja (Central Uttar Pradesh), Sarayuparin (Central Uttar Pradesh, Eastern, Northeast, and Southeast Uttar Pradesh),bhatt(Eastern and Central uttar prdesh) and Maithil (Varanasi and Agra region), Suryadhwaja Brahmins (Western Uttar Pradesh), Southwestern Uttar Pradesh, i.e. Bundelkhand has a dense population of Jujhotia brahmins (branch of Kanyakubja brahmins: ref. Between History & Legend: Power & Status in Bundelkhand by Ravindra K Jain). On the Jijhoutia clan of Bhumihar Brahmins, William Crooke writes, "A branch of the Kanaujia Brahmins (Kanyakubja Brahmins) who take their name from the country of Jajakshuku, which is mentioned in the Madanpur inscription." Mathure or mathuria Brahmins 'choubeys' are limited to Mathura area. ))Upreti(देवनागरी:उप्रेती),is a highly esteemed community of Brahmins living in the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand. Some branches of Upreti brahmin are also found in Uttar Pradesh (mainly in Agra), Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan & now in Gujrat, they were originally migrated from Kumaon region. According to their traditions, they are the descendants of the sage Bharadwaj.
According to Pandit Badri Datt Pandey's legendary book History of Kumaon, the Upretis were originally inhabitants of Maharashtra region of western India, or from Kannauj from where they migrated to the hills. They migrated to Nepal along with other Brahmins from Almora under the royal patronage of the Hindu kingdom when the Kumaon region was under the control of the Gurkhas till the early 19th Century.
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There are many sub-castes, including Rarhi, Barendra, Saiba (Rudraja) and Agradani. Some of the gotras are Savarna, Sandilya, Bharadwaj, Kashyap and Vatsya.
The Panch Dravida (the five classes of Southern India) are: 1. Andhra, 2. Dravida (Tamil and Kerala), 3. Karnataka, 4. Maharashtra and Konkon, and 5. Gujarat.
According to the Census of 1931, the population of the Brahmins in Maharashtra was 781,448, which constituted 2.39% of the total population. Maharashtra Brahmins have several sub-castes. The Census Report of the Bombay Province of 1911 lists all the sub-castes of the Maharashtra Brahmins, which are as follows:
Mrs. Irawati Karve has recorded a sub-caste called Charak Brahmins around Nagpur, belonging to the Krishna Yajurved branch. However, these several sub-castes are broadly grouped into three main divisions, namely Deshastha, Konkanastha and Karhade Brahmins. The Saraswat Brahmins of the Pancha-Gouda group is said to be the fourth branch. Unlike other Maharashtra Brahmins, Saraswats traditionally eat fish and meat. Devarukhe and Kramvant Brahmins inhabit Konkan, but originally they were Deshasthas. They are the priests for the lower castes. The Kramvant Brahmins migrated to Kokan from Paithan in historic times.
In Maharashtra, Panch Dravid Brahmins are dravids from Maharastra. They are classified into five groups: Chitpavan Konkanastha Brahmins, Deshastha Brahmins, Karhade Brahmin, andDevrukhe. As the name indicates, Kokanastha Brahmins are from Konkan area. Deshastha Brahmins are from plains of Maharashtra, Karhade Brahmins are perhaps from Karhatak (an ancient region in India that included present day south Maharashtra and northern Karnataka) and Devrukhe Brahmins are from Devrukh near Ratnagiri. Gaur Saraswat Brahman though found in Maharashtra belong to Panch Gaur brahman. Their origins are in Saraswat desh identified as Punjab and Kashmir region. The name Saraswat derives from Saraswati river that flowed through Punjab into Rajasthan into Kutch.
Daivadnya is another caste, claiming its descent from Maga Brahmins, and is found all along the west coast of India. Though Sringeri Shankaracharya recognizes them as Dravida, this claim is not always accepted by other orthodox creeds.
Kannada Brahmins are Brahmins whose mother-tongue is the Kannada language. Nearly all of them hail from the south Indian state of Karnataka. Kannada Brahmins are known to have preserved the purest form of Vedic Hinduism. It is in this region that the rituals and Vedic chanting are done with great accuracy. Kannada Brahmins follow one of the three schools of Vedanta philosophy, which are Advaita, Vishitadvaita and Dvaita. These communities are further divided into different sub-castes based on the locality of their ancestry. For further information seeKannada Brahmins.
Havyakas means Brahmin in Karnataka. Smarthas and Madhwas are also a set of Brahmins.
Most of the Brahmins in Andhra Pradesh belong to smaarta Brahmin group, i.e., the followers of smritis and followers of Adi Sankaracharya. The smaarta Brahmins follow Apastambasmriti or Apastambasutra (not Manusmriti). Apasthamba (~600 BC) was one of the earliest lawmakers of south India who lived on the banks of River Godavari. Boudhayana, Parasara, Yajnvalkya sutras and other laws were also important in the past, e.g., in the courts of Srikrishnadevaraya. Pradhamasakha Niyogi Brahmins follow Yajnavalkya sutras and Kanva sutras. The smaarta Brahmins in Andhra Pradesh can be grouped into two major divisions formed about a thousand to about 700 years ago (most probably during Kakatiya rule), Niyogi and Vaidiki. However, in addition to smaarta Brahmins, there are other Brahmin groups such as Sri Vaishnavas, Madhavas and Aradhyas.
Niyogi Brahmins are those brahmins who were mostly scholars and officials under kings of different dynasties in ancient India. While Vaidiki Brahmins are the brahmins who undertook the religious vocation with vedik learning. They are considered to be experts in Sanskrit and Telugu (the state language of Andhra Pradesh) literature. See List of Telugu Brahmins and Telugu Brahmins.
Brahmins are broadly classified into 2 groups: Vaidiki Brahmins (meaning educated in vedas and performing religious vocations) and Niyogi (performing only secular vocation). They are further divided into several sub-castes. However, majority of the Brahmins, both Vaidika and Niyogi, perform only secular professions.
There are Vaikhanasa Brahmins/Vaikhanasas, a tiny Vaishnavite Brahmin community of about 2,500 families widely dispersed in South India at Vaishnava temples in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and parts of Karnataka. Vaikhanasa agamam is the guiding principle for rituals inTirumala Venkateswara temple.
Brahmins form two main groups, Iyers, who follow the Advaita (non-dualism) philosophy andIyengars, who follow the Vishistadvaita (qualified non-dualism) philosophy. The Iyer and Iyengar communities are further divided into several subgroups, depending on differences in philosophical orientation.
There are Vaikhanasa Brahmins/Vaikhanasas, a tiny Vaishnavite Brahmin community of about 2,500 families widely dispersed in South India at Vaishnava temples in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and parts of Karnataka. Vaikhanasa agamam is the guiding principle for rituals inTirumala Venkateswara temple
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Historically, Brahmins, known as ponna (ပုဏ္ဏား) in modern-day Burmese (Until the 1900s, ponnareferred to Indians who had arrived prior to colonial rule, distinct from the kala, Indians who arrived during British rule), formed an influential group prior in Burma to British colonialism. During the Konbaung dynasty, court Brahmins were consulted by kings for moving royal capitals, waging wars, making offerings to Buddhist sites like the Mahamuni Buddha, and for astrology. Burmese Brahmins can be divided into four general groups, depending on their origins:
According to Burmese chronicles, brahmins in Burma were subject to the four-caste system, which included brahmanas (ဗြာဟ္မဏ), kshatriyas (ခတ္တိယ), vaishya (ဝေဿ), and shudra (သုဒ္ဒ). Because the Burmese monarchy enforced the caste system for Indians, Brahmins who broke caste traditions and laws were subject to punishment. In the Arakanese kingdom, punished Brahmins often became kyun ponna (ကျွန်ပုဏ္ဏား), literally 'slave Brahmins', who made flower offerings to Buddha images and performed menial tasks. During the Konbaung dynasty, caste was indicated by the number of salwe (threads) worn; brahmins wore nine, while the lowest caste wore none. Brahmins are also fundamental in the Nine-God cult, called the Nine Divinities (Phaya Ko Su ဘုရားကိုးစု) which is essentially a Burmesepuja [disambiguation needed] (puzaw in Burmese) of appeasing nine divinities, Buddha and the eightarahats, or a group of nine deities, five Hindu gods and four nats. This practice continues to be practiced in modern-day Burma.
Brahmins classify themselves on the basis of their patrilineal descent from a notable ancestor. These ancestors are either ancient Indian sages or kshatriyas (warriors) who chose to become Brahmins. The eight major gotras that trace descent from sages are: Kanva, Jamadagni,Bharadvâja, Gautama, Atri, Vasishtha, Kashyapa and Agastya gotra. Two gotras that trace descent from kshatriyas are Harita and Vishvamitra gotra.
In general, gotra denotes any person who traces descent in an unbroken male line from a common male ancestor. Pāṇini defines gotra for grammatical purposes as 'apatyam pautraprabhrti gotram' (IV. 1. 162), which means: "the word gotra denotes the progeny (of a sage) beginning with the son's son". When a person says, "I am Kashypasa-gotra", he means that he traces his descent from the ancient sage Kashyapa by unbroken male descent. This enumeration of eight primary gotras seems to have been known to Pāṇini. These gotras are not directly connected to Prajapathy or latter brama. The offspring (apatya) of these Eight are gotras and others than these are called 'gotrâvayava'.
The gotras are arranged in groups, e. g. there are according to the Âsvalâyana-srautasűtra four subdivisions of the Vasishtha gana, viz. Upamanyu, Parāshara, Kundina and Vasishtha (other than the first three). Each of these four again has numerous sub-sections, each being called gotra. So the arrangement is first into ganas, then into pakshas, then into individual gotras. The first has survived in the Bhrigu and Āngirasa gana. According to Baudh., the principal eight gotras were divided into pakshas. The pravara of Upamanyu is Vasishtha, Bharadvasu, Indrapramada; the pravara of the Parâshara gotra is Vasishtha, Shâktya, Pârâsharya; the pravara of the Kundina gotra is Vasishtha, Maitrâvaruna, Kaundinya and the pravara of Vasishthas other than these three is simply Vasishtha. It is therefore that some define pravara as the group of sages that distinguishes the founder (lit. the starter) of one gotra from another.
There are two kinds of pravaras, 1) sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara, and 2) putrparampara. Gotrapravaras can be ekarsheya, dwarsheya, triarsheya, pancharsheya, saptarsheya, and up to 19 rishis. Kashyapasa gotra has at least two distinct pravaras in Andhra Pradesh: one with three sages (triarsheya pravara) and the other with seven sages (saptarsheya pravara). This pravara may be either sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara or putraparampara. Similarly, Srivatsasa gotra has five sages or is called Pancharsheya and are the descendants of Jamadagni. When it is sishya-prasishya-rishi-parampara marriage is not acceptable if half or more than half of the rishis are same in both bride and bridegroom gotras. If it is putraparampara, marriage is totally unacceptable even if one rishi matches.
Due to the diversity in religious and cultural traditions and practices, and the Vedic schools which they belong to, Brahmins are further divided into various subcastes. During the sutra period, roughly between 1000 BCE to 200 BCE, Brahmins became divided into various Shakhas(branches), based on the adoption of different Vedas and different rescension Vedas. Sects for different denominations of the same branch of the Vedas were formed, under the leadership of distinguished teachers among Brahmins.
There are several Brahmin law givers, such as Angirasa, Apasthambha, Atri, Bhrigu, Brihaspati,Boudhayana, Daksha, Gautama, Harita, Katyayana, Likhita, Manu, Parasara, Samvarta,Shankha, Shatatapa, Ushanasa, Vashishta, Vishnu, Vyasa, Yajnavalkya and Yama. These twenty-one rishis were the propounders of Smritis. The oldest among these smritis are Apastamba, Baudhayana, Gautama, and Vasishta Sutras.
Many Indians and non-Indians claim descent from the Vedic Rishis of both Brahmin and non-Brahmin descent. For example the Dash and Nagas are said to be the descendants of Kashyapa Muni. Visvakarmas are the descendants of Pancha Rishis or Brahmarishies. According to Yajurveda and brahmanda purana, they are Sanagha, Sanathana, Abhuvanasa, Prajnasa, and Suparnasa. The Kani tribe of South India claim to descend from Agastya Muni.
The Gondhali, Kanet, Bhot, Lohar, Dagi, and Hessis claim to be from Renuka Devi.
The Kasi Kapadi Sudras claim to originate from the Brahmin Sukradeva. Their duty was to transfer water to the sacred city of Kashi.
The backward-caste Matangs claim to descend from Matang Muni, who became a Brahmin by his karma.
Brahmins have taken on many professions - from being priests, ascetics and scholars to warriors and business people, as is attested for example in Kalhana's Rajatarangini. Brahmins with the qualities of Kshatriyas are known as 'Brahmakshatriyas'. An example is the avatara Parashuramawho is considered an avataram of Vishnu. Sage Parashurama was a powerful warrior who had defeated the Haiheya kshatriyas twenty one times, was an expert in the use of weapons, and trained others to fight without weapons. The Bhumihar Brahmins were established whenParashurama destroyed the Kshatriya race, and he set up in their place the descendants of Brahmins, who, after a time, having mostly abandoned their priestly functions (although some still perform), took to land-owning. Many brahmins took up the profession of medicine. They are Vaidya brahmins called Baidya Brahmins of Bengal [gupta, dasgupta and senguptas] are descendants of Dhanavantari, the god of medicine and father of Ayurveda.
The Brahmakhatris caste, descendants of the Khatris, however, are a business caste/community of Punjab and belong to the Vaishya caste. Khatri has often been misinterpreted as a variation of the word Kshatriya, meaning warrior, however there are no records of any Khatri kingdoms or empires in Indian history and this claim to Kshatriya is recently made in the 20th century.
Perhaps the word Brahma-kshatriya refers to a person belonging to the heritage of both castes. However, among the Royal Rajput households, brahmins who became the personal teachers and protectors of the royal princes rose to the status of Rajpurohit and taught the princes everything including martial arts. They would also become the keepers of the Royal lineage and its history. They would also be the protectors of the throne in case the regent was orphaned and a minor.
Kshatriyan Brahmin is a term associated with people of both caste's components.
Lord Viswakarma was a brahmin. He is believed to be the creator of this world. His followers are now know as viswkarmas or viswabrahmins.
Brahmins with the qualities of a Vaisya or merchant are known as 'Brahmvyasya'. An example of such persons are people of the Ambastha caste, which exist in places like South India. They perform medical work - they have from ancient times practiced the Ayurveda and have beenVaidyas (or doctors).
Many Pallis of South India claim to be Brahmins (while others claim to be AgnikulaKshatriyas.) Kulaman Pallis are nicknamed by outsiders as Kulaman Brahmans. Hemu from Rewari, Haryana was also a Brahmin by birth.
Brahmins, adhere to the principles of the Vedas, Manu Smriti, Sanatana Dharma, and can be found in any of the different religions of Hinduism, such as acceptance of the Vedas. Brāhmaṇashave six occupational duties, of which three are compulsory—namely, studying the Vedas, worshiping the Deity and giving charity. By teaching, by inducing others to worship the Deity, and by accepting charity back, the brāhmaṇas receive the necessities of life. This is also confirmed in the Manu-saḿhitā:
ṣaṇṇāḿ tu karmaṇām asya
trīṇi karmāṇi jīvikā
viśuddhāc ca pratigrahaḥ
A brāhmaṇa cannot take up any professional occupational duty for his livelihood. The śāstrasespecially stress this, if one claims to be a brāhmaṇa. Brahmins believe inSarvejanāssukhinobhavaṃtu—Let the entire society be happy and prosperous and Vasudhaiva kuṭuṃbakaṃ—the whole world is one family. Many Brahmins are reformers. Brahmins practicevegetarianism or lacto-vegetarianism which has been a custom since several centuries dating back to B.C. Following this custom is mandatory in brahmin culture. However, some among the Brahmins inhabiting cold regions of Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Nepal, and coastal areas like Bengal, eat fish and are pesco-vegetarians.
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Saivism (sometimes called Shivaism) is a belief system where Lord Shiva is worshipped as the Supreme Lord. It is a derivative faith of the core Vedic tradition. Saiva sects contains many sub-sects, such as Rudrasaivas, Veerasiavas, Paramasaivas, etc.
There are additional sampradayas as well which are not as widely followed as the rest.
The Mahima Dharma or "Satya Mahima Alekha Dharma" was founded by the Brahmin Mukanda Das of present-day Orissa, popularly know by followers as Mahima Swami according to theBhima Bhoi text. He was born in the last part of 18th century in Baudh ex-state as a son of Ananta Mishra. He was Brahmin by caste as mentioned in Mahima Vinod of Bhima Bhoi in Vol.11. This sampradaya is similar to Vaishnavism. Although the members of this sect do not worship Lord Vishnu as their Ishta-Deva, they believe that the Srimad Bhagavatam is sacred. The founder of this sect was a Vaishnavite before founding the new order. This sampradaya was founded in the latter part of the 18th century.
There is also the Avadhoot Panth, wherein Lord Dattatreya and his forms such as Narasimha Saraswati and Sai Baba of Shirdi are worshiped. Lord Dattatreya is worshiped by many as the Hindu trinity - Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in one divine entity. Many even worship Dattatreya as an avatar of Vishnu or of Shiva.
A defining of feature of the Buddha's teachings is self-sufficiency, so much so as to render the Brahminical priesthood entirely redundant. Dr. U. N. Roy, a brahmin, promoted Buddhist art and philosophy; he also contributed an article to Association for Sanskrit Studies.
The notion of ritual purity provided a conceptual foundation for the caste system, by identifying occupations and duties associated with impure or taboo objects as being themselves impure. Regulations imposing such a system of ritual purity and taboos are absent from the Buddhist monastic code, and not generally regarded as being part of Buddhist teachings To the contrary, the early Buddhist scriptures defined purity as determined by one's state of mind, and refer to anyone who behaves unethically, of whatever caste, as "rotting within", or "a rubbish heap of impurity".
There are many places in which the Buddha explains his use of the word brahman. At Sutta Nipata 1.7 Vasala Sutta, verse 12, he states: "Not by birth is one an outcast; not by birth is one a brahman. By deed one becomes an outcast, by deed one becomes a brahman." An entire chapter of the Dhammapada is devoted to showing how a true brahman in the Buddha's use of the word is one who is of totally pure mind, namely, an arahant.
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There are also several Mohyals (Brahmin warriors) in the Sikh community.
During the Indian independence movement, many Brahmins were at the forefront of the struggle for freedom and later Indian politics, including Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya (also calledHemu), Mangal Pandey, Nana Sahib Peshwa, Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi, Tatya Tope, Baikuntha Shukla, Chandrashekar Azad, Yogendra Shukla, Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, Adyakrantikarak Vasudev Balvant Phadke, Chaphekar Brothers, Anant Kanhere, Vinayak Deshapande, Vishwanath Vaishampayan, Sri Satyanarayana Shukla,Basawon Singh (Sinha), Pandit Bhola Shukla, Balgangadhar Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gokhale,Rajguru, Ramprasad Bismil, Chandrashekhar Azad, Vanchinathan, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar,Ganesh Damodar Savarkar, Prativadi Bhayankara Venkatacharya ("Bhayankarachari"), Tanguturi Prakasam, C. Rajagopalachari, R.V.Krishna Iyer,Laxmi Raman Acharya, Sri Krishna Sinha,Gobind Ballabh Pant, Kamalapati Tripathi, Sheel Bhadra Yajee, Ravishankar Shukla, Kailashnath Katju, Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, Motilal Nehru, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee and others. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India and Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, the first Vice President of India, were also Brahmins. Communist leaders like E. M. S. Namboodiripad, Hiren Mukherjee, S. A. Dange, P. C. Joshi, Acharya P. K. Atre and many others were Brahmins. Present Brahmins in Indian politics include Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee, Railway Minister Mamata Banerjee, Chief Minister of [[West Bengal]] Budhadev Bhattacharya, [[Ministry of Rural Development (India)|Union Minister for Rural Develeopment]] C. P. Joshi and President of the National Commission for Women of India Girija Vyas.
Brahmins who became Prime Ministers of India include Jawaharlal Nehru, Morarji Desai, P. V. Narasimha Rao and Atal Behari Vajpayee. Brahmin Presidents of India include V. V. Giri, R. Venkataraman, S. Radhakrishnan and Shankar Dayal Sharma.
Pakistani politician Mahesh Kumar Malani, a Member of the National Assembly of Pakistan from the Pakistan Peoples Party, is also Brahmin. Jairam environment minister. jayalalitha tamil nadu ex chief minister. Vilas rao deshmukh ex chief minister of maharashtra. Sheila dixit delhi chief minister. Sandeep dixit MP delhi.
Medieval Hindu kings such as King Porus of the Punjab, Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, also called Hemu, who had established 'Hindu Raj' in North India after defeating Akbar's forces atAgra and Delhi, and had his coronation or Rajyabhishake at Purana Quila in Delhi on 7 October 1556, after winning 22 battles continuously, without losing any, was a Bhargava and DhusarBrahmin.
Several chiefs of the Indian Army have been brahmins, including General Arun S. Vaidya, GeneralKrishnaswamy Sundarji, General T.N. Raina, General Bipin Chandra Joshi, General Sundararajan Padmanabhan, General V. N. Sharma.
In the Indian Air Force too, brahmins have reached the apex rank of Air Chief. Among these areAir Marshal Subroto Mukherjee, Air Chief Marshal Swaroop Krishan Kaul, Air Chief MarshalSrinivasapuram Krishnaswamy, and Air Chief Marshal S.P. Tyagi. India's first and only cosmonaut, Wing Commander Rakesh Sharma, is also a brahmin.
In the Indian Navy, Admiral A. K. Chaterji, and Admiral J. G. Nadkarni are brahmins who rose to the heights of their service. Captain Mahendra Nath Mulla, a Kashmiri Pandit, commander of theINS Khukri received the Maha Vir Chakra during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, for his gallantry at the helm of his stricken ship.
Brahmin scholars and writers include Pāṇini, Satyabrata Nath, Patanjali, Kalidas, Satya Sandhani Haridutta Dash,Chandrasekhar pranava (Indian yoga Mentore) Chanakya, Banabhatta,Goswami Tulsidas, Sur Das, Keshav das, Behari Saint Dnyaneshwar, Eknath, Samarth Ramdas.Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore, Prativadi Bhayankara Annangaracharya (Sanskrit scholar and composer of the Suprabhatam in the mid-1400s), Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan, Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar', Jiddu Krishnamurthy, Hazariprasad Dwivedi, Sumitranandan Pant, Subramanya Bharathy, Tarashankar Bandopadhyay, Ramvriksh Benipuri, Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Suryakant Tripathi Nirala, Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Srilal Shukla and Manohar Shyam Joshi. Other Brahmin scholars includePandurang Vaman Kane, Ram Sharan Sharma and Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya. Modern writers include R. K. Narayan, cartoonist R. K. Laxman, Sanskrit scholar Kundalam Rangachariar, journalist Indra Kant Mishra, and traditional Vedic astrologer Srirangam Ramesh Guru.
Scientists from the Brahmin fold include Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Nobel laureates Sir C. V. Raman and his nephew Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, bhaskaracharya, agricultural scientist M. S. Swaminathan, Prof. A. K. Joshi (molecular plant breeder), ethno-sociologist M. N. Srinivas, and mathematicians Srinivasa Ramanujan, Shakuntala Devi and C. P. Ramanujam. Raja Ramanna, who was instrumental in making India a nuclear weapons state, was also a Brahmin. PVN Acharya (1924–1993), of the Prativadi Bhayankara family, received his PhD in Biochemistry with highest honors from the University of Paris-Sorbonne, and published papers with his professor, the famous French scientist Edgar Lederer. As a student in Paris and later as a biochemist in Madison, Wisconsin, PV Narasimh Acharya conducted groundbreaking work intuberculosis and was the first scientist to discover that "irreparable DNA damage" is caused by low-dose ionizing radiation, environmental pollutants and the food additives nitrites and nitrates, and that such damage to the DNA is a causal factor in premature aging and cancer. Prior to pursuing his doctorates at the Sorbonne, PVN Acharya graduated from Benares Hindu University, where he studied Oil Technology, and worked at the Shri Ram Institute for Industrial Research and the National Council of Applied Economic Research (New Delhi), where he developed commercial applications for castor oil including detergents and synthetic materials, including Nylon products.
In cricket, major names include Sunil Manohar Gavaskar, Sachin Tendulkar, Rahul Dravid, Sourav Ganguly, Dilip Balwanth Vengsarkar, Ajit Wadekar, Srinivasan Venkatraghavan, Erapalli Anandrao S Prasanna, Bagawath Subramania Chandrashekhar, Gundappa Vishwanath, Laxman Sivaramakrishnan, Chetan Sharma, Parthasarathy Sharma, Ravi Shastri, Krishnamachari Srikkanth, Anjali Vedpathak, Vangipurappu Venkata Sai Laxman, Anil Kumble, Javagal Srinath,Venkatesh Prasad, Ajay Sharma, Dinesh Karthik, Murali Kartik, Rohit Sharma, Ishant Sharma,Amit Mishra, Subramaniam Badrinath, Suresh Raina, Maneesh Pandey, Sadagoppan Ramesh,Ajit Agarkar, Hrishikesh Kanitkar, Sunil Joshi and many more. Other sports names include the world chess champion Vishwanathan Anand, Kirti Azad (cricketer and M.P.), and 1890s national tennis champion Narumanchi Narayanamurthy from Tenali, Andhra Pradesh.
Saint musicians include Thyagaraja, Purandara Dasa, Vyasatirtha, Raghavendra Swami,Muthuswami Dikshitar and Shyama Sastri. In entertainment, prominent names include S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Vishnuvardhan, Usha Uthup, Mithun Chakraborty, Kavita Krishnamurthy,Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Hema Malini, Basu Chatterjee, Sudhir PhaDke, Balgandharva, Dr. Vasantrao Deshpande, Ashok Kumar, Kishore Kumar, Mukesh, Shreya Ghoshal, Udit Narayan,Shantanu Mukherjee, Abhijeet, Kumar Sanu, Alka Yagnik, Madhuri Dixit, Amrita Rao, Sharmila Tagore, Aditi Govitrikar, Gayatri Joshi, Sonali Bendre, Rani Mukherjee, Kajol, Vidya Balan, andSonali Kulkarni. Tansen, Baiju Bawra the musician of Akbar's court was born a Brahmin. Rati Agnihotri, Apurva Agnihotri, Sunil Dutt, Sanjay Dutt, Kamal Hassan, Mausumi Chatterji, Chunki Pande, Rekha,Hrithik roshan,Arjun rampal,paresh raval,shankar mahadevan,hariharan,mani sharma,shruti hassan, and meenakshi Sheshadri, and Mani Ratnam are also Brahmins.
Several notable names in Indian classical music belong to the Brahmin community, such asBhimsen Joshi, Pandit Ravi Shankar, Veena Doreswamy Iyengar, Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna, Pandit Jasraj, and Shivkumar Sharma.
Brahmin saints include Ramanuja, Madhwacharya, Mandana Mishra, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu,Goswami Tulsidas, Surdas, Vallabhacharya, Dnyaneshwar, Ramakrishna Paramhansa, Ramana Maharshi and Shree Kripalu Maharaj.
Some incarnations (avatarams) of Lord Vishnu were Brahmins. Parashurama, the son of sage Jamadagni, is considered a redeemer of virtue and set the stage for nobility to manifest as LordRama, the divine king, by ridding the world of unscrupulous and unjust rulers - Haiheyas. AsVamana, a dwarf Bramhin, Vishnu who vanquished Bali, an ancient king of Kerala who became more powerful than the Devas in piety.
Infosys, N. R. Narayana Murthy, SHREE BINDUKSHINI Advisory Services(www.bindukshini.com), Nitin Omprakash Bohra, UB Group Vijay Mallya, Dr. Gururaj "Desh" Deshpande, the founder of the Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation at MIT, Jaypee group, The Cognizant, TTK group, TVS and sons, Sundaram group, Air Deccan, Deccan aviations, ICICI bank, AXIS bank, Dhanalakshmi bank, karnataka bank pvt ltd Sanmar group, India cements, Kirloskar group, Camlin products Vicco products, Baidyanath, L&T group, Unitech group,
Kiran majumdar of Biocon TCS is run by a brahmin, TIME institutions Manipal academy of higher education Punj Llyod constructions, Simplex constructions Agri gold industries, Orchid pharmaceutical industries Kamat group of hotels, Orchid group of hotels, sahara group, ICFAI institute Gammon infratech. kingfisher airlines, indus airways, Jaypee group, uninor communications, vilas rao deshmukh has number of industries in and around maharashtra, Malladi pharmaceuticals, C. K. Prahalad
From the Vedic age up to the earlier times of the Dharma sutras, the four Varnas had no difference regarding their food and conduct. All Varnas had similar food habits,and both vegetarianism and non-vegetarianism were very popular..
No strict dietary laws have been mentioned in Vedas, but Hindu dietary laws were made,when the Dharma sutras were being written. Beef was not forbidden in the Vedas, and the sacrificial animals which were often cows were eaten as a part of ritual by the Brahmins. Tenth mandalaof the Rigveda mentions cows being slaughtered in honour of Indra and other deities. It also mentions butcher houses that were erected to slaughter cows. Further Yajurveda mentionsAshvamedha or the horse sacrifice,and even Purushamedha or the Human sacrifice(Yajurveda (VS 30–31)). The flesh of the sacrificial animals was partaken by the sacrificer. The Purushamedha or Human sacrifice was purely ritualistic, and there is no proof of a human ever being sacrificed. The custom of animal sacrifice still continued. The Nambudiri Brahmins of Kerala still continued the Somayaga sacrifice well into the 20th century, and this involved the sacrifice of goats. However, the Brahmins employed servants to kill the goats, and due to the purity that was required of Brahmins, used sticks to place the omentum of the sacrificed goat into the ritual fire. Therefore the Brahmins were required to avoid contact with the dead animal, due to the pollution that would result if the meat was touched, let alone eaten.
|“||... two jawbones with the tongue are to be given to the Prastotar, the breast in the form of an eagle to the Udgatar,the throat with the palate to the Pratihartar...||”|
Baudhayana says (Baudhayana Dharmasutra), carnivorous animals, tamed birds, pigs, cocks should not be eaten. Five toed animals, animals with cloven hoofs, birds that feed scratching with their feet, etc. may be eaten. Apastamba (Apastamba Dharmasutra) gives another list of animals not to be eaten. He also mentioned that during Shraddha meat should be offered to the ancestors.
|“||..My hands have become soft because they do know of no harder work than eating rice and meat boiled with tamarind. The sweet smell of its smoke might counteract the smell of the pieces of meat..||”|
From the early centuries of the Christian era, Buddhism and Jainism contributed much to the crescent belief that nonviolence is supremely valued which stimulated growing hostility to the slaughter of live animals. Due to the sacrifice of cattle, there was a big famine in most parts of the country. People who wrer forced by Brahmins to provide them whatever they want, slowly started drifting towards other religions which were by that time following non-voilence. Priests who participated in sacrifices and eating the flesh of the animals were degraded. To protect their community and its existence the Brahmins stopped sacrifice and replaced it with coconut. We can see in any temple today that a coconut is offered by the people in temples. For the same reasons, high proportion of Brahmins gave up partaking flesh and fish.
However, the Nambudiri Brahmins or Kerala, who are still continue the ancient Srauta sacrifices, are complete vegetarian, and continue animal-sacrifice. In order to maintain their purity they never touch the sacrificed flesh, and instead handle it with sticks.
In 4th and 5th century AD. in the Tamil country the cults of Vishnu and Shiva, had to fight against those of the Jains. The Vaishnava and Shaiva could not make much headway against the cult of the Jains (who believed in non-violence and vegetarianism), if they did not give up eating of flesh. Hence they adopted abstention from meat and liquor as one of their fundamental principles.
Pt Ḍori Lāl Śarmā writes that the region from Bengal to Kashmir was Gauḍa country . That is why five major sub-divisions of north Indian brahmins are named Panch-Gauda, after the nameGauḍa. The Sanskrit text Ādi-Gauḍa-dīpikā mentions that the region west of river Gaṇḍakibounded by Sarayu in west and south and by Himalayas in the north is the core of Gauḍacountry and brahmins living here from the beginning (=Ādi) of Creation were known asĀdi-Gauḍa . Another story relates Ādi-Gauḍa brahmins of this region to those brahmins who were invited by King Janamejaya in his yajńa and settled in the Ādi-Gauḍa region .
Other minor branches of Gauḍa are :
Deśwāli & Pacāte form the mainstream Gaudas, numerically. Ādi Gauḍa Brāhmaṇotpattienumerates 24 original gotras, but Kul Pradīpikā gives a list of 28 main gotras. Only 12 gotras are common to both lists :
Anāvṛika, Avyaya, Ālampāyana, Kāṇḍava, Kātyayana, Kāńcana, Kauṇḍinya, Garga, Jaimina, Dhṛita Kauśika, Śakti, Śunaka. All these are found today among Gauḍa brahmins.
Following is the list of 12 gotras unique to Ādi Gauḍa Brāhmaṇotpatti : Kaśyapa, Sāvaṛṇa, Bhārdvaja, Kalpiśa, Agniveśa, Kuśika, Viśvāmitra, Citra, Kriṣṇātreya, Rohita, Hārita, Jamdagni. All these are ancient and widespread gotra names.Only the Ādi Gauḍas enumerate these 12 gotras among the original gotras. Other Gauḍas accept these gotras but not as original ones. SriGauḍa list is very different.
Both the lists given above are to be found in the comprehensive list of extant gotras given below. But four gotras unique to Kul Pradīpikā are not found today : Bṛihaspati, Sankṛiti, Vṛiddha.Vṛiddha may imply Vṛiddha Vasiṣṭha, because Vṛiddha does not appear to be any name at all..Sankṛiti may be same as or precursor of Sānkṛitya. Bṛihaspati cannot be related to any modern gotra, it is perhaps a precursor of some modern or extinct gotra/gotras.
Vasiṣṭha gotra is not found as such now, but as five sub-divisions : Apara Vasiṣṭha, Para Vasiṣṭha / Vṛiddha Vasiṣṭha, Diva Vasiṣṭha, Purva Vasiṣṭha, Uttara Vasiṣṭha.
King Janamejaya had granted 1444 villages to 1444 Gauḍa brahmins headed by Vateśwar Muni invited in his yajńa . Later, there disciples from various gotras came to them and settled in their villages. As a result, many gotras were found in one village. Such multi-gotra villages came to be called as śāsanas (because disciples lived in the śāsana / control of gurus). Often one śāsana is found in more than one gotra, and more than one śāsana is found in a śāsana. Gauḍa brahmins prohibit endogamy within a gotra as well as within a śāsana. Each śāsana has a distinct name, signifying the name of some ancient village.. Some gotras have a large number of śāsanas associated with them.
Later on, descendants of these original 24 or 28 gotra-founders became bīj-purusha (founding fathers) of new gotras, so that there are 115 gotras among Gauḍa brahmins now, as the followingcomprehensive list shows  (figures following each gotra indicates the number of śāsanas associated with that gotra) :
Sum total of all existing śāsanas as given above is 1690, but some śāsanas are found in more than one one gotra ; hence, the traditional story about number of original śāsanas stated to be 1444 matches admirably with extant number of śāsanas. Gotras with highest number of śāsana associated with them are :
The names of these gotras and śāsanas throw much light on many historically and sociologically significant aspects of brahmin communities. For instance, one gotra is named Āsuri and it has four śāsanas : abhicāriā, bhalārhiā, malaiyā and pāńcāliā. It suggests that this Āsuri (literally, demonic) gotra was related to ritals like abhicāra associated with Tantra (perhaps Vāmamārgi) which might have prevailed in parts of Pańcāla in some remote age. Pulastya gotra has śāsanas bearing names like Lankapuriya, Tantariya, Yantri, etc., which suggest a relation with Rāvaṇa) of Rāmāyaṇa. Bhṛigu gotra has interesting śāsanas named Daityācārya, Daityapāla, Abhicāraka, etc. Such names are, however, rare and almost all gotra names are associated with names of Vedic sages.
Yājńavalkya gotra has 7 śāsanas, including Janaksthaliyā (place of Janaka, ancient king ofMithila). Śākalya gotra also has one śāsana named Janakpuriyā, and another named Vangawāl, which indicate eastern origins of some śāsanas. Similarly some śāsanas can be traced to Gujarāt, Sindh and Kumāun. Barring these exceptions , all the śāsanas belong to Madhyadeś, the region from Gaṇḍaki in the east to Rājasthan and Hariyāṇā in the west .
The śāsana Gāndharwāla in Bhārdvāja gotra seems to be an ancient form of Gāhaḍwāla. Pāṇina gotra has śāsanas naned Pāṇina-prasthiā and Pāni-patiā, which asuggests that Pāṇina-prasth was the ancient name of Pānipat. It is not known whether the famous grammarianPāṇini belonged to this Pāṇina gotra or not, but other divisions of brahmins do not have Pāṇina gotra .
Dhaumya (family priest of Pāṇḍavas) is an important gotra and its 8 śāsanas indicate following 8 ancient villages/towns where they lived : Bhiṣma-sthala, Parikṣita-garha, Parikṣika, Sahāranpur, Muktanagar, Kamalgiri, Gajapur and Ḍhāḍbala. Many of these śāsanas are associated with characters and locale of Mahabharata. Bāghpat is said to evolve from Bāghaprastha, on the analogy of Indraprastha, but Vyāghrapāda gotra has a śāsana Bāghpatia(i.e."of Baghpat"), which suggests that Bāghpat was perhaps called Vyāghrapāda (name of a sage) and not Bāghaprastha. Folklore relates Bāghpat with five village demanded by Pāṇḍavas.
Ādi Gauḍas are differently organised than the main Gauḍas described above. There are 15 sakhas (divisions) among Ādi Gauḍas :
All Ādi Gauḍa have Rigveda & same Veda (Śukla Yajurveda), same Śākhā (Madhyandina), same Sutra (Paraskara), but Nūkhas (surnames) and Āvaṇṭakas differ. There are 20 Āvaṇṭakas among Ādi Gauḍa, of which the first in the following has Miśra nūkha, and the second has Parota nookha, the rest having Jośi nūkha. :
Haritwāla,lata, Māraśyā, Kiriṭa, Indauriyā, Baverwāl, Semal, Ḍācolā, Surelā, Pādopotā, Pańcarangyā, Icchāwat, Tāsorayā, Asṭān, Kundālak, Giṇḍā, Moroliā, Tungā, Ṭilāwat, Vivāl, Bhivāl. 
In 1268 AD, King Vijay Simha of Gujarat invited 200 Śri Gauḍa to settle in his state. These Śri Gauḍas originally lived in Śri Haṭṭa Nagar (perhaps Śrinagar) of Kashmir, but migrated to Malwadue to a famine and finally settled in Gujarāt.. Later, more migrants from Kāśmīr arrived, causing a division between old and new.New Śri Gauḍas have 22 clans, half of them are regarded as uttama (best) and the rest medium. Their kuladevi (clan-deity)) is Lakṣmeśwari (another name of Śri-devi of Śri-nagar).
Those who came to Mālwā from Meerut (Meraṭh) are called Meḍhatwāl Śri Gauḍa. Those who directly came to Mālwā from Kāśmīr are known as Mālāvī Śri Gauḍa. Those originating from Kharola are called Kharola Śri Gauḍa, and those who came from Kharsod are calledKharsodiye Śri Gauḍa.
Prawāliye Śri Gauḍa are inhabitants of Bagaḍa and are characterised by a lack of religiosity. Those who married with Śudra women are known as Ḍerolā Śri Gauḍa. Excepting these last two all Śri Gauḍas branches allow marriages among each other, other Śri Gauḍas do not marry with Prawāliye and Ḍerolā.
The first of the following list has 5 pravaras, all other Śri Gauḍas have 3 pravaras. Śri Gauḍas are differentiated mainly by means of 22Ṭankas, because only 15 gotras have survived in them due to uprooting (from Kashmir) and wanderings. Āspada means surname.
Another organisation sequence (krama) like the above of 21 divisions, known as Jīrṇa-krama, is also in vogue. The Meḍhatwāla Śri Gauḍas use their own Meḍhatwāla-krama.
A cursory look at some identifiable śāsanas of Deśwāli and Pachāde Gaudas reveals the traditional areas :
Following is the traditional area for all Gauḍa: "Hariyānā and Jangaldeś in the Madhyadeś, Delhi, regions around Yamunā, Mārwār, Śekhāwati, Puṣkar, Matsya and Virāṭa (in Rajasthan), Bhiwāni, etc" are traditional areas of Gauḍa brahmins according to the author of A History of Brahmin Clans. Brāhmaṇotpatti-mārtaṇḍa says that regions north of Sarayu and Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh, around Saravasti near modern Goṇḍda, are (also) traditional areas of Gauḍa brahmins. This latter view is supported by Matsya Purāṇa which linked "best brahmins" to the Gaudadesh of Śrāvasti near modern Goṇdā district..
Mishra,Lata, Mehrishi, Soral, Tiwāri, Dube, Gautam, Puthiā, Chaumoharia, etc. are chief surnames among Deś Wāli Gauḍa brahmins. Śukla is also a surname among Gauḍa brahmins, among Ādi Gauḍa Śukla is the surname of a majority, followed by Miśra and Parota .
Surname in Ādi Gauḍa is known as Nūkha 
Gauḍa brahmins are mostly Yajurvedi and some are Sāmvedi too. Generally, upanayanaaccompanies marriage, and early marriage is preferred . With increasing modernisation, such trends are expected to decline. The surnames of the aadi gaur/gaud brahmin in western U P, Haryana,Delhi and some parts of Rajasthan are Sharma, Gaur and name of the his gotra mostly.
Pt Ḍori Lāl Sarmā writes that the sāsanas had originated due to settling of many gotras in a single village, as disciples settled in the village of their guru to acquire Vedic and related knowledge . Moreover, a new gotra was started by the name of a person who attained the status of a rishi by dint of spiritual accomplishments. It shows that the organisational mechanism was dynamic and depended upon the principal objective of a brahmin's life : acquisition of scriptural knowledge and spiritual purity. But during the medieval age, brahmins received grants like agrahāras (land grants) and stuck to landed properties, and the organisational system gradually ossified. Pt Ḍori Lāl Sarmā narrates many stories in his book which reveal that accepting grants from mundane powers was regarded a vice by rishis and a major cause of multiple divisions within the once monolothic brahmin community was ostracism of those who grabbed such land grants. This primordial monolithic character of brahmin community is mentioned in a Sanskrit text Brāhmaṇotpatti-mārtaṇḍa  :
सृष्टियारम्भे ब्राह्मणस्य जातिरेका प्रकीर्तिता ।
Meaning : There was one caste of Brahmin in the beginning of Creation.
ADI GOUR BRAHMAN GOTRA & SASHAN
1. PARVRIDH VASISHT GOTRA: Tgunayat, Jhimiriya, Jharmriya, Vijaycharan, Gothwal, Haldolia, Nuliwal,Choubepradhan, Diwedi Pradhan, Narwalia, Brahmpuria, Jharmpuria, Mandoria, Kuruskehtri, Sirohiwal,Sarpdama, Kundolia Bhadrawasia, Basotia, Chandolia, Mainwal, Ramhadia, Yanesaria, Gangawasi, Badiwal,Pidra, Safidmiwala.
2. VASISHT GOTRA : Sinwal, Buntolia, Surolia, Kankrit, Natholia, Chulhat, Khairwal, Balachia, Bankolia, Kalaneria,Dhamani MIshra, Baberwal, Narela, Upadhyay, Ghamunia, Gaudwal, Kharwalia, Narnolia, Bidwaria, ChukaniaGoaswami, Sunpatia, Dwijanaia, Gour Grabhiya, Shipuria, Ugratapa, Mishra, Gomani, Atolia, Bijnet, Nachania,Godhria, Pahaktari, Soria, Pharmania, Chrolia, Vayohaal, Naliyariya, Babroliya, Vadgamiya, Varithwal, Silaniya,Diwachiya, Vishmbhra Pradhan, Biyala, Basotia, Kathaliya, Dewliya, Oudhaka, Suthya, Bartar, Gatalima,Simawat, Luniwal Mata, Kulta Japria, Tundwal, Khariwal, Kheriwal, Shorthia, Gill, Gilan, Ramaniya, Changan,Babarwal, Tilawat, Parbati, Gangawat, Adhichwal Joshi.
3. GOUTAM GOTRA : Indoria, Patodia, Dorliya, Duledia, Dohliya, Bayoliya, Nauotania, Ritambhara, Boghar,Gandharwal, Pandyana, Pantiye, Jhuria, Kanoria, Muhanwan, Sathia, Bajre Simmanwal, Pandey, VadibalChoudhary, Jhandoliya Pradhan.
4. KASHYAP GOTRA : Kurusketriya, Gurpuriya, Chulkaniya, Manchaki.
5. ATRI GOTRA : Dhand, Dhigthaliya, Jhadoliya, Jhadoliya Joshi, Tripathi, Ratiwal, Rohitiya, Sirsonia,Vyas, Kankhaliya, Baleriya, Gourpuria, Ghortapa, Sarpddama, Karpundiya, Tusamariya, Didwania, Pandyan,Tandpade, Saagwal, Ganwariya, Jindiya, Kedeliya, Bupadwal, Disawad, Kundhra (Panda), Bariwal, Phulriye,Bariwal Mota Nagwan, Mangloriya, Kasampariya, Dhuncholiya, Maroliya, Nedhaliya, Sankholiya, Sirsaniya,Moteka Tusania, Bheda, Khaksaya, Kriksa, Magas, Mogra, Mandolia, Rame, Rawalma, Sirsania, Mite.
6.KRISHNAYA GOTRA : Nirmal, Rewaliya, Banbarewal, Brahmwedia, Chinkatia, Kakar.
7.AGUSTYA GOTRA : Maharshi, Wajhra, Tapodhara, Utchala, Shuilkpuria, Vidhyadhara, Mayadiya, Salothia,Pihuwal, Vyas.
8.KOUSHIK GOTRA : Dixhit, Bhridwal Pilodha, Lata, Dokwal, Jhimariya, Panwalia, Karirhat, Nagarwal,Phatwariyavyas, Vidhat, Singhwal, Bishkaria, Dana, Chaturvedi, Brijwal, Kanrwal, Bhudoj, Gandhara, Bagarhata,Bahandia, Baghdolia, Ghaghsani, Kotiya, Sayania, Gorkhpuria, Bruhadania, Sirohiwal, Gogani, Mangaloria,Mandalwal, Mathwal, Maharwal Nakare, Pindane, Varsia Chumheth, Untlodia, Kankar, Tigadia, Barad, KamiyaPhutwa, Kalanoria, Kuranwal, Kankar, Vijaycharan Banhaya, Jaisatwara, Bhura, Aastyan, Sankholia.
9.BHARDWAJ GOTRA : Chaklan, Garwal, Dhand, Panchlangia, Indoria, Sindolia, Bhathra, Kaloondia, Gogyan,Sahal, Nagwan, Nreda, Tungaria, Wamadolia Dhancholia, Luniwal, Biyala, Marahsiya, Pathak, Gangawat,Kalawatia, Vinwal, Pitrot, Khantwal, Dodwadia, Kharith, Satoria, Dolya, Maloo, Baber, Gilyan, Bijechan, Tikdyant,Paslotia, Chatesaria, Ratelwal, Ramparia, Surolia, Dubey, Nayayasthani, Panwalia, Vadiwal, Kedewal,Choubelal, Godharia, Bijret, Tandolia, Bhiwal, Bawelia, Balochia, Alwaria, Simbhala, Anguthia, Bharthalia,Bhartiya, Chandolia, Mandhania, Chourashi Bayoria, Vijayavani, Nirthalia, Silothia, Kandodhia, Sanwlodia,Vishambhara, Sanklash, Sanpalwal, Madothia, Shivahaya, Dulinhat, Sagwal, Barnaya, Ghijwal, Dabodhia,Pithwal, Sirsoulia, Gosrat, Nigambothia, Tapodhana, Sarpdama, Dantolia, Netwalia, Alselia, Bhadchakki,Tantpradhan, Petwadia, Santoria, Jaywal, Dungarpuria, Natwal, Pihulwal, Galiyan, Gilad, Katwadia, BohariaBhunwal, Galyan, Bankolia, Nudiwal Naharia, Goudia, Mahta, Umrawatia, Gurgamia, Mamdolia, Sandolia,Narhedwal, Niralia, Raiwal Bidahat, Thikaria, Padhia, Choubepradhan, Sindolia, Paladia, Naad, Pawta, Damanil,Kuthia, Sorthya, Kaath, Bardwalia, Bagla, Bima, Bacha, Rahthala, Tharal, Lamba, Dadwadya, Roliwal, Dorwal,Kharwal, Batole, Godhalia, Kamdiwal, Sindolia, Kankrit, Toshyan, Marolia, Bhinda, Jhadodia.
10. JAMDAGNI GOTRA : Ratelwal, Basundwal, Mudahhat.
11. VATS GOTRA : Jhimiria, Balmia, Manjithwal, Bahdolia, Gohria, Nagarwal, Marhata, Sikara, Nagwan, Chouhanwal,Mandawaria, Ghatsaria, Bora, Jhaman.
12. MUDGAL GOTRA : Bawlia, Kasaria, Kakyani, Churolia, Bhinda Joshi, Chulkania, Kakyan, Ramudama.
13. PARASHAR GOTRA : Bagdolia, Khedwal, Hinsaria, Gujarka, Ramgadhia, Jhadsaiya, Narhada, Karnalia, Bhunddat,Lokanda.
14. SANDILYA GOTRA : Haritwal, Chulhiwal, Basundwal, Varundwal, Noongarwal, Pancholia, Bhapyawalia, Parwati, Kalinoora, Rurlwal, Kandwal Pathak, Chaitpuria, Monas, Bhattawalia Tiwari, Sojtama.
15. HAARIT GOTRA : Choumal, Salwal, Sabharia, Kaduvadia, Chohmewal, Khoj, Kandira.
16. ANGIRA GOTRA : Banderwal, Chobedixhit, Gangapuria, Mirchiyan, Chajawat, Jilaraya, Gilad, Nagarwal.
17. JAIMINI GOTRA : Mahtapa, Jamniya, Dharmpuria.
18. SHOUNAK GOTRA : Bhadupota
19. OSHESHWAR GOTRA : Phatwadia.
20. SUPRNA GOTRA : Naguwal, Nigarwal, Nagoora.
21. BHIRUGU GOTRA : Dadwaliye, Rame Pradhan, Abhisay Pradhan, Kalsota, Mandorama.
22. HARITAS GOTRA : Chamhal.
23. PIPLAWAN GOTRA : Aabyethaya Pradhan, Bhograan Pradhan, Chandolia Pradhan, Bishambara Pradhan.
24. VYOG GOTRA : Kalyan.
25. SANKRITYA GOTRA : Triwedi (Tiwari)Tiwari-Chuliwal-Tiwari, Tayga-Tiwari, Ghurchadhia-Tiwari, Bhadya-Tiwari, Parasaria-Tiwari, Phalodiye-Tiwari,Bhatawala-Tiwari, Rodi-Tiwari, Korak-Tiwari, Bahrodia-Tiwari.
26. CHANDRAYAN GOTRA : Chandnia.
27. GALAV GOTRA : Kath.
28. KOTSH GOTRA : Kakar.
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